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FT-Apr17-eMag 37 COFFEE ON THE EXTINCT LIST ‘Hot’ coffee could actually be a bad thing for the world’s java enthusiasts, if recent American research is right in predicting that rising global temperatures will stress Coffea arabica plants into not flowering or fruiting later this century. A study by Oregon State University’s College of Forestry found that the globe’s dominant coffee-plant species – which continually produces new flushes of leaves year-round and is grown in 80 countries over four continents in the tropics - does not like short-duration heatwaves, and its younger leaves struggle to recover from the stress. Lead author and plant physiologist Danielle Marias says C. arabica, which accounts for 65% of commercial production of the nearly 20 billion pounds of coffee consumed globally each year, will suffer as the world’s temperatures rise. “No flowering means no reproduction which means no beans, and that could be devastating for a coffee farmer facing crop failure,” she says. In the OSU study, C. arabica plants were exposed to heat that produced leaf temperatures of a little more than 48 degrees celsius, for either 45 or 90 minutes. That leaf temperature, Marias says, is a realistic result of global climate change and also more than the surrounding air temperature – think of how hot, for example, asphalt gets in the sunshine on a 32 degree day. Expanding leaves subjected to the 90-minute treatment took the longest to recover physiologically as NZMP, Fonterra’s ingredients business, has developed the low lactose milk powder so people around the world who avoid dairy due to lactose concerns can now enjoy milk and all the goodness it contains. Fonterra’s Angela Rowan says those who identify as lactose intolerant don’t think they can have milk and miss out on the full package of nutrients. “The main reason people avoid dairy is because they feel bloated after drinking milk,” Rowan says. “But if you have a problem with lactose, you don’t have to give up dairy to avoid feelings of discomfort. Low lactose milk means you can keep drinking and enjoying milk.” The NZMP Low Lactose Instant Milk Powder was launched at the 2017 Gulfood exhibition in Dubai, the world’s largest annual food event that attracts measured by photosynthesis; chlorophyll fluorescence, an indicator of photosynthetic energy conversion; and the presence of nonstructural carbohydrates, which include starch and free sugars involved in growth, reproduction and other functions. “In both treatments, photosynthesis of expanding leaves recovered more slowly than in mature leaves, and stomatal conductance of expanding leaves was reduced in both heat treatments,” Marias says. “Based on the leaf energy balance model, the inhibited stomatal conductance reduces evaporative cooling of leaves, which could further increase leaf temperatures, exacerbating the after-effects of heat stress under both full and partial sunlight conditions, where C. arabica is often grown.” Regardless of leaf age, the longer heat treatment resulted in decreased water-use efficiency, which could also worsen the effects of heat stress, particularly during drought. Results of the research were recently published in Ecology and Evolution. MILK WITH YOUR COFFEE? Lactose-intolerant consumers can now enjoy their coffee with milk, a nourishing dairy smoothie or a creamy glass of milk, thanks to NZMP’s new Low Lactose Instant Whole Milk Powder, which contains less than 2% lactose. more than 90,000 visitors and 5,000 exhibitors. It is hoped that demand will grow in places such as Asia, the Middle East and West Africa. Low lactose is one of the fastest-growing sectors across the dairy industry, with strong demand particularly for low lactose dairy and ice cream. Global values of low lactose food topped NZ$9 billion in 2015 and are forecast to grow at 6% year-on-year over the 2015 to 2020 period, reaching more than NZ$14 billion in 2020. Low lactose dairy is expected to account for 80% of this growth. Lactose intolerance  means the body cannot easily digest lactose, a type of natural sugar found in milk and dairy products. A glass of low-lactose milk contains all the nutrients found in a glass of standard milk…nothing is added or removed - the lactose is simply broken down into more digestible sugars for those with reduced ability to digest lactose. Fonterra brand Anchor offers New Zealand consumers Anchor Zero Lacto, the first lactose free fresh milk available in New Zealand.

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